Last edited by Voodoolkree
Saturday, April 25, 2020 | History

2 edition of Draize eye-irritancy test found in the catalog.

Draize eye-irritancy test

Janice C. Swanson

Draize eye-irritancy test

  • 52 Want to read
  • 20 Currently reading

Published by National Agricultural Library in Beltsville, Md .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Eye -- Diseases -- Bibliography.,
  • Rabbits as laboratory animals -- Bibliography.,
  • Toxicity testing -- Bibliography.

  • Edition Notes

    Other titlesDraize eye irritancy test.
    StatementJanice C. Swanson.
    SeriesSpecial reference briefs -- SRB 91-03., Special reference briefs -- NAL-SRB. 91-03.
    ContributionsNational Agricultural Library (U.S.)
    The Physical Object
    Paginationiii, 32 p. ;
    Number of Pages32
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL15285631M

    Draize test: (drāz) n. A test to determine the degree to which a substance such as a cosmetic or pharmaceutical irritates human tissues, in which a small amount of the substance is applied directly in the eye of a rabbit, and the rabbit is then monitored. evitable conclusion that the Draize test can no longer be justified as a routine test for eye irritancy. (1) The test will cause suffering and, in some cases, a great deal of suffering to the rabbits being used. Many toxicological technicians have expressed strong feelings against the test, especially in those instances.


Share this book
You might also like
Daniel Defoe

Daniel Defoe

effects of leadership style and performance feedback on supervisor ratings by work group members

effects of leadership style and performance feedback on supervisor ratings by work group members

Discovering Backpacking

Discovering Backpacking

Walfords county families of the United Kingdom

Walfords county families of the United Kingdom

Palynology of the Early Permian coal-bearing deposits near Vereeniging, Free State, South Africa

Palynology of the Early Permian coal-bearing deposits near Vereeniging, Free State, South Africa

Lan̄ʹguage: introductory readings.

Lan̄ʹguage: introductory readings.

DOZPO

DOZPO

Regulating Indian child protection and prevent child abuse on Indian reservations

Regulating Indian child protection and prevent child abuse on Indian reservations

Labor and internationalism

Labor and internationalism

Shes more to be censured than pitied

Shes more to be censured than pitied

Annual index to the Financial times.

Annual index to the Financial times.

technique of verse

technique of verse

underground war against revolutionary France

underground war against revolutionary France

Draize eye-irritancy test by Janice C. Swanson Download PDF EPUB FB2

The Draize Eye Irritancy Test. This paper discusses the harmful and fatal use of non-human animals, particularly rabbits, in the Draize eye irritancy test. It argues and demonstrates that such use is not scientifically valid if the results are applied to human beings.

Genre/Form: Bibliography: Additional Physical Format: Online version: Swanson, Janice C. Draize eye-irritancy test. Beltsville, Md.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Get this from a library. The Draize eye-irritancy test. [Janice C Swanson; National Agricultural Library (U.S.)].

The Draize rabbit eye and skin irritancy tests have been used for 60 years to attempt to predict the human ocular and dermal irritation of such products.

The Draize test has been the standard for ocular and dermal safety assessments for decades. However, several aspects of the test Cited by: the application of a test substance to the anterior surface of the eye of rabbits, which are followed for reversibility for 21 days after application (OECD Test Guidelinein vivo) (OECD, a), also known as the Draize rabbit eye test.

Draize eye irritation pre - sents one of the most criticized and contested animal tests still in use Size: 1MB. 1 1 DRAFT GUIDELINE FOR THE TESTING Draize eye-irritancy test book CHEMICALS 2 Vitrigel-Eye Irritancy Test Method for Identifying Chemicals Not Requiring Classification and 3 Labelling for Eye Irritation or Serious Eye Damage 4 5 INTRODUCTION 6 7 1.

Serious eye damage refers to the production of tissue damage in the eye or serious physical 8 decay of vision that follows application of a test chemical to the anterior File Size: KB.

The Draize test is an acute ocular toxicity test devised in to provide a method for assessing the irritation potential of materials that might accidentally come in contact with human eyes, such as household and office products, agricultural or environmental chemicals, and volatile organic compounds.

Because of the widespread acceptance of this method, it was later adopted for testing eye care. The Draize eye test involves an assessment of signs of two major reactions: toxicity and inflammation.

External observation is limited to judging only certain aspects of Draize eye-irritancy test book reactions and cannot ascertain the underlying mechanisms.

Furthermore, direct contact with the outer eye may produce not only toxic injury and reactive inflammation but also discomfort, delayed allergy, structural alterations, various Cited by: 3T3-NRU assay has been proposed as a potential replacement alternative for the Draize Eye irritation test.

This test is a short-term test system based on a monolayer culture of 3T3 cells with cytotoxicity used as the endpoint for eye irritancy evaluation of test by: 6. The Draize eye test was created and refined for humanitarian reasons and has assuredly prevented harm.

Its destiny is to be progressively supplanted as in vitro and clinical alternatives emerge. Author(s): Buyukmihci, NC | Abstract: This paper discusses the harmful and fatal use of non-human animals, particularly rabbits, in the Draize eye irritancy test. It argues and demonstrates that such use is not scientifically valid if the results are applied to human beings.

Moreover, not only can this test result in extreme suffering (and death at the end) for non-human beings, dependence on Author: NC Buyukmihci. The Draize Test is an acute toxicity test devised in by Food and Drug Administration toxicologists John H. Draize and Jacob M.

Spines. Initially used for testing cosmetics, the procedure involves applying mL or g of a test substance to the eye or skin of a restrained, conscious animal, and then leaving it for set amount of time before rinsing it out and recording its effects. The animals are observed for up Purpose: test cosmetics(allergic/toxic reaction).

The Draize rabbit eye and skin irritancy tests have been used for 60 years to attempt to predict the human ocular and dermal irritation of such products. The Draize test Cited by: Eye irritancy – Draize test.

The Draize test measures the eye irritancy of chemical and other products by dropping concentrated amounts of a test substance into an animal’s eye (often rabbits) and then assessing the eye’s reactions using a subjective numerical score to indicate the level of eye damage and injury (e.g.

the degree of swelling, redness, ulcerations etc). The Draize Test is an acute toxicity test devised in by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) toxicologists John H. Draize and Jacob M. Spines. The current Draize eye irritation test evaluates the changes observed in three tissues of the eye: the cornea, the conjunctiva, and the : Bushra Shamim.

The historical antecedent for the eye irritation testing guidelines recently published by both the OECD and the IRLG is the Draize test, developed by Draize, Woodard, and Calvery in From toa modified Draize test has been specified by the Federal Hazard- ous Substances Act as the preferred method for eye irritation testing.

Justification of the enucleated eye test with eyes of slaughterhouse animals as an alternative to the Draize eye irritation test with rabbits.

Food Chem Toxicol. Jan; 31 (1)– [Google Scholar] Gautheron P, Dukic M, Alix D, Sina JF. Bovine corneal opacity and permeability test: an in vitro assay of ocular irritancy. Fundam Appl by: BeforeDraize in vivo rabbit irritation test developed inhas been only officially accepted test method by OECD (2).

Draize rabbit test procedure is composed of forced application of test substance to the eye or skin of a non-anesthetized rabbit in a restrainer and subsequent scor-Cited by: The Draize eye irritancy test: "It has not been possible for us to use the results of rabbit studies to predict accurately the actual irritation that might occur in humans after accidental exposure." Procter & Gamble scientists, Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology.

vol. 6,   The Draize rabbit eye test (Draize et al., ) is the only widely used assay for the effect of substances on the view of the scientific, ethical, and economic concerns over the Draize test (Wilhelmus, ), it is not surprising that alternatives to the Draize test have been examined and that various calculation procedures have been by: The Draize test uses rabbits because they are inexpensive, have large eyes, and are easy to handle.

However, the rabbit is an inappropriate and inaccurate model for human ocular damage. The following are some of the fundamental anatomical differences between the rabbit and human eyelid, tearing mechanism, and cornea: Draize Test Eye Irritancy Test The Draize Test is one of the most common type of cosmetic testing.

This test is named after the scientist, John Draize, in For this test, albino rabbits are used since their skin is much more sensitive. The Draize test is an acute toxicity test devised in to test for irritancy in cosmetics, but subsequently became the most common method for assessing skin and eye irritancy in pharmaceuticals.

It has remained the traditional test for over seven decades, despite scientific studies for the last 40 years showing deficiencies with Draize in.

The Vitrigel-Eye Irritancy Test (EIT) method is an in vitro test method that allows the identification of test chemicals not requiring classification and labelling for eye irritation or serious eye damage.

This test measures the eye irritation potential of a test chemical based on its ability to induce damage to the barrier function of the human corneal epithelium (hCE) models used in the. Despite the availability of more modern, humane, and effective alternatives, rabbits are still tormented in the notorious Draize eye irritancy test, in which cosmetics, dishwashing liquid, drain cleaner, and other substances are dripped into the animals’ eyes, often causing redness, swelling, discharge, ulceration, hemorrhaging, cloudiness, or blindness.

The Draize skin test doesn't fare much better. This is because the anatomy and cellular makeup of skin varies among different species; therefore, responses to products vary between the species. Indeed, the rabbit is now considered a notoriously poor predictor of human irritation : Monica Engebretson.

Discussion of alternatives to the draize eye irritancy test / By. Prior, M. Yee, D. Alberta Environmental Centre. Publication Details. Vegreville, Alta.:Alberta Environmental Centre, If you are generating a PDF of a journal article or book chapter, please feel free to enter the title and author information.

The information you Author: M. Prior, D. Yee. The Draize test is used to measure irritation or corrosion caused to the eye or skin, but it is notoriously unreliable, producing highly variable results. It is also extremely unpleasant and painful, causing eye reddening, swelling, ulceration, even blindness, or skin cracking and bleeding.

Furthermore, to clarify the histological and immunohistological damage of HCE models after exposing test chemicals, we selected glycerol, toluene, and n-hexanol as test chemicals that were classified into “Not classified (NC)” and “an eye irritant Category 2A (2A)” by GHS and were scored “,” “,” and “” by Draize Cited by: This Test Guideline is intended preferably for use with albino rabbit.

The test substance is applied in a single dose in the conjunctival sac of one eye of each animal. The other eye, which remains untreated, serves as a control. The initial test uses an animal; the dose level depends on the test substance nature.

Testing Household Products on Animals. Animals in laboratories are experimented on for testing household products. Cleaning products for ovens, baths, dishwashers, toilets and carpets. Detergents, stain removers, toilet blocks, paints, glues, polish for furniture, cars and even shoes.

Highly invasive animal based test procedures for risk assessment such as the Draize eye test are under increasing criticism due to poor transferability for the human organism and animal-welfare Author: C.

Lotz, L. Kiesewetter, F. Schmid, J. Hansmann, H. Walles, F. Groeber-Becker. AbstractThe cosmetics industry is the target of criticism from animal welfare and animal rights groups for its use of the Draize eye irritancy test to substantiate the safety of cosmetic ingredients and products.

To date, the two main difficulties in the development of alternatives to the Draize test have been a lack of high correlation between in vitro alternative test results and in vivo Cited by: texts All Books All Texts latest This Just In Smithsonian Libraries FEDLINK (US) Genealogy Lincoln Collection.

National Emergency Library. Top Discussion of alternatives to the draize eye irritancy test Item Preview remove-circle Share or Embed This Item. EMBED EMBED (for. The Draize test was the target in Next the coalition took on the LD 50 test (the lethal dose of a toxic substance which will kill half or more of a group of test animals), getting the Food and Drug Administration to review its policy and acknowledge the test can be replaced by experiments using cell biology and other techniques.

The Draize Test is an acute toxicity test devised in by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) toxicologist John H. Draize. Initially used for testing cosmetics, the procedure involves applying mL or g of a test substance to an animal's eye or skin for four hours. "The Draize Test is an animal test devised in by FDA toxicologist John Henry Draize, initially for testing cosmetics, and which today involves applying mL or g of a test substance to an animal's eye or intact skin for 4 hours then observing the results." All the images I've seen of Draize skin tests indicate that the skin is not intact.

Draize test definition is - a test for harmfulness of chemicals to the human eye that involves dropping the test substance into one eye of a rabbit without anesthesia using the other eye as a control —called also Draize eye test.

The draize eye irritancy test is a method used for assessing the degree to which a substance or chemical mixture irritates the eyes. The usual subjects are young albino rabbits which are tightly restrained for a number of days after a test substance (like deodorant, mascara or detergent) has been dropped onto one of the animal's eyes.

Draize test synonyms, Draize test pronunciation, Draize test translation, English dictionary definition of Draize test. A test to determine the degree to which a substance such as a cosmetic or pharmaceutical irritates human tissues, in which a small amount of the. Following is a description of the two most common tests, the Draize and the LD The Draize Test.

The Draize tests attempt to measure the harmfulness of chemicals to humans by observing the damage they cause to the eyes and skin of animals. There are two kinds of Draize tests: the Draize eye irritancy test and the Draize skin irritancy test.

This hCE model was used to establish a new test method, known as the Vitrigel-Eye Irritancy Test (Vitrigel-EIT) method, which can be used to estimate the ocular irritation potential of test chemicals by analysing relative changes in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) over time.

the Draize eye test Reference Database (DRD).Cited by: 1.The Draize test is a test, to see if a substance is H. Draize and Jacob M. Spines first used the test in The test was first used for cosmetics, but later for other substances as see if a substance is toxic, it is applied to the skin or the eye of an animal, for a given time.

After the time, the substance is washed out and the effects are recorded.